Diamonds derives from the Greek word “adamas,” which means invincible or indestructible. It is formed about 100 miles below ground and have been carried to the earth’s surface by deep volcanic eruptions, its billions of years old—in some cases more than three billion years old.
Throughout history and up until present times, Diamonds have been much sought after and appreciated and kings and queens, collectors and investors, and lovers the world over. Initially it was for their magical power and great hardness. Then in more recent history, for their beauty which has developed with greater understanding in science of the physical and optical properties and by the art with which great precision is given to the gems by the cutter.
Today, the expression “Diamond is Forever” is well known in almost country of the world. Man’s fascination and desire to process object of great beauty is repeatedly seen in every civilization and society hence its popularity and desire for the diamond is never likely to cease.
Diamonds are made of a single element, Carbon, with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. Under the immense heat and pressure far below the earth’s surface, the carbon atoms bond in a unique way that results in diamonds’ beautiful and rare crystalline structure.
Diamonds are the very hardest natural substance, being 10 on the Mohs scale. The only thing that can scratch a diamond is another diamond.
The ancient Romans and Greeks believed that diamonds were tears cried by the gods or splinters from falling stars, and Romans believed that Cupid’s arrows were tipped with diamonds (perhaps the earliest association between diamonds and romantic love).
The countries that are the main sources of diamonds have changed over time. India was the world’s original source of diamonds, beginning in the 1400s when Indian diamonds began to be sold in Venice and other European trade centers. Then in the 1700s India’s diamond supplies declined and Brazil became the world’s major source of diamonds, until the late 1800s when a huge diamond reserve was discovered in South Africa. Today, diamonds are mined in many parts of the world.
Fancy Colour Diamonds
Fancy color diamonds come in almost any color you can imagine. Red, green, purple, and orange are generally the most rare, followed by pink and blue. Yellows and browns are the most common fancy colors, but they’re generally less valuable than the rarer colors.
As the arrangement of atoms in diamond is extremely rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it 2 exceptions being boron and nitrogen. These small numbers of defects or impurities causes the colour in diamond, i.e. blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red.
Diamonds in the normal color range are colorless to light yellow, which are graded using the industry’s D-to-Z color-grading scale. Fancy color diamonds, on the other hand, are yellow and brown that exhibit color beyond the Z range, or exhibiting any other color in every color of the spectrum, including blue, green, pink, and red.
Black diamonds are real diamonds, with the same chemical composition as traditional colourless diamonds. The main difference between colourless diamonds and black diamonds is the number of inclusions, which are responsible for giving black diamonds their colour. While inclusions on a regular white or colourless diamond may show up as tiny dark specks, at extremely high levels, the diamond appears completely black. Thus, you have a black diamond.
This makes it a very unique and rare kind of coloured diamond. Black diamonds differ from other fancy coloured diamonds, as these coloured diamonds are usually formed by chemical impurities present during the diamond’s composition.
Black diamonds come in two main types: natural black diamonds and diamonds that have been treated to become black. Like with almost all gemstones, the first type — diamonds that have a natural black appearance — are significantly more valuable and desirable.
Natural black diamonds get their color during the creation process, with no external interference. These too have a lot of inclusions present, however their inclusions form graphite clusters, which gives the stone a black, metallic appearance. The organic way in which natural black diamonds are created means they are extremely rare, and thus quite valuable – much more so than artificially treated black diamonds.
The Hope Diamond is one of the most famous jewels in the world, with ownership records dating back almost four centuries. Its much-admired rare blue color is due to trace amounts of boron atoms. Weighing 45.52 carats, its exceptional size has revealed new findings about the formation of diamonds.
Famous diamonds are fantastically large and beautifully cut with fabulous brilliance, fire and scintillation. They also have an impeccable historical pedigree and have added to our understanding of diamonds. These includes KOH-I-NOOR (“Mountain of Light”), The Cullinan, The Star of Africa, The Excelsior, The Great Mogul, The Orloff, The Idol’s Eye, The Regent, The Sancy, Taylor-Burton and Hortensia.